Much can be said about the translation as one of the most effective, if not the only means of communication between the cultures of different languages. Translation as a concept existed thousands of years ago, but only in the second half of the twentieth century appears as an independent academic discipline taught in universities
Machine translation and human translation
Machine translation is a process by which a computer program analyzes the source text and reproduces the target text generally without human intervention. In reality, however, it is usually associated with human intervention in the form of pre- or post-editing. With proper work on the terminology, the preparation of the source text for machine translation in the form of pre-editing and its processing by the translator as post-editing, the tools for machine translation can give good results, especially if the machine translation system is integrated in translation memory.
Unedited machine translation is publicly accessible via the Internet tools like Google Translate, Babel Fish, Babylon and Stardict. They produce rough translations that under favorable circumstances, "give the substance" of the source text.
In an internet a translation software can help people who not speaking a certain language to understand web pages in this language. Tools to translate entire pages are of questionable benefit, as they offer only a limited understanding of the potential intention and context of the author's text. Thus the translated pages rather have a confusing effect instead helping the comprehension.
Increasingly popular are interactive translation with pop-ups. These tools show one or more equivalents for each word or phrase. Operators simply need to choose the most likely equivalent, while the mouse glides over the text.
Гowever, any attempt to completely replace human translation by machine translation will certainly be doomed to failure for the simple reason that no machine translation has the ability to interpret. For example, only human translator may interpret certain cultural components, which can be found in the source text and that can not be translated literally, as occurs with automatic translation. Moreover, it is generally accepted that one of the most difficult tasks during the translation process is to preserve in the target text the same effects, which are present in the source text. In this regard, automatic translation has proven its shortcomings compared with human translation. Only human translator may understand different cultural, linguistic and semantic factors contributing to the transmission of the same impact in the target text that exists in the source.
Computer-assisted translation or CAT is a method of translation in which the translator uses computer software to support and facilitate the translation process. Computer-assisted translation sometimes is called machine-assisted, but should not be confused with machine translation.
The available systems for automatic machine translation alone are not able to produce high quality translations. Their products must be edited by people for correcting errors and improving the quality of the translation. Computer assisted translation (CAT) combine stages of manually editing software, making translation an interactive process between man and computer.
Some modern solutions for computer-assisted translation include controlled machine translation. Expensive modules for machine translation generally provide a more complex set of tools available to the translator, which may include functions for management terminology and various other linguistic tools. Carefully crafted dictionaries based on correct terminology significantly improve the accuracy of machine translation, and as a result they are aimed at increasing the efficiency of the overall process of translation.
Computer-assisted translation is a broad and imprecise term covering a range of tools - from the simple to the complex. This may include: checking the spelling or grammar checker, or an additional programs; terminological managers that allow translators to manage their own terminology database in electronic form. This can range from simple table created in a word processor or spreadsheet, a database created in a program like FileMaker Pro or for more flexible (and more expensive) solutions - specialized software packages such as SDL MultiTerm, SDL Trados, LogiTerm, Termex and etc.